3CO02 Principles of Analytics
Your recently appointed People Practice manager is surprised by the limited use of metrics in the department and wants to address this concern by raising the knowledge and understanding of the People Practice Team. The manager wants to express that using different forms of evidence and data can help make informed decisions and judgments on all manner of working practices and situations. You have been asked to prepare a presentation and presenters notes in readiness to be given to the People Practice Team on their next learning and development day. Also, by way of an example it has been requested that you provide interpretation of survey data that has been collected from three departments in the organisation.
Preparation for the Tasks:
- At the start of your assignment, you are encouraged to plan your assessment work with your Assessor, and, where appropriate, agree milestones, so that they can help you monitor your progress.
- Refer to the indicative content in the unit to guide and support your evidence.
- Pay attention to how your evidence is presented, remember you are working in the People Practice Team.
- Ensure that the evidence generated for this assessment remains your own work.
You will also benefit from:
- Completing and acting on formative feedback from your Assessor.
- Reflecting on your own experiences of learning opportunities and continuous professional development.
- Reading the CIPD Insight, Fact Sheets and related online materials on these topics.
Task one-Presentation with Presenters Notes
The presentation must provide knowledge and understanding of how evidence-based practice informs organisational measures and outcomes and how creating value benefits employees, customers and wider stakeholders. Ensure that you:
- define what is meant by evidence-based practice and how it is applied within organisations, providing three examples of different types of evidence-based practice that can be used to inform principle-led judgements and outcomes for an organisation. (1.1),
- explain the reasons why it is important to use data to help assist organisational improvements and why this data need to be timely, ethical and accurate. (1.2)
- explain two different types of data measurements and information that can be used by people professionals, and how they are each used to collect and collate information to support effective decision making. (1.3)
- explain how organisational policies, procedures and other forms of evidence can be used to support appropriate choices and decisions. (1.5)
- explain the range of internal and external customers and stakeholders, that people professionals work with, and the part that influencing plays within the relationships (2.1)
- explain what is meant by creating value as a people professional, and identify benefits of providing value to customers and stakeholders (2.2)
- drawing on good practice examples, explain how the work that people professionals perform benefits others within an organisation in supporting good practice, open cultures, commitment and engagement. (2.4)
- explain how social media can be used internally and externally in workplaces to improve communication and organisational practices, highlighting the risks in a work context. (2.3)
- outline how you can, in your own work or a voluntary role, achieve and maintain a customer focused attitude to ensure consistent high standards and customer satisfaction. (2.5)
Task two-example of analysis of data to inform practice
A mini survey on the quality of work has recently been carried out as a pilot and the raw data from the first three departments, Research & Design, Administration and Marketing has just been collected. The People Practice manager has asked you to represent the data as percentages and analyse the survey results.
- Review the sets of raw numerical data that have been provided in the tables below and convert them to percentages to illustrate the results.
- Provide an analysis of these, identifying themes, patterns and trends that appear to be occurring.As a part of this analysis, consider the possible issues that have been revealed by the data.
- Calculate how many working days are lost in a three-month period for each department based on the above figures.
- Estimate the projected average loss of working days over a 12-month period if these rates were to continue.
- Calculate the costs of pay assuming all absentees are contractually paid full remuneration whilst off sick during the three-month period. (1.4)
AC 1.1 Review evidence-based practice and how it is applied within an organisation
According to Young (2021) evidence based practice is the process of making decisions by drawing from available evidence and guided by critical thinking. Boatman (2021) on the other hand defined evidence based practice as the process of drawing from internal organisational data, research findings, expert views, values and concerns to make business decisions. Essentially, evidence based practice moves away from making management decisions basing on word of mouth success stories, quick fixes, trends and personal biases (Boatman, 2021). Similarly, Moitra (2017) stated that evidence based practice moves away from reacting to issues, reliance of fads and supposition in decision making and adopts use of empirical data in finding solutions to HR issues such as talent management.
The following are examples of application of evidence based practice in HR related decisions. It can be used in selection techniques in the hiring process such that the selection is not based on cultural fit and a gut feeling. Prichard (2020) noted that HR departments are better positioned to provide value by spending to find unique and exponential performers. This can be achieved through conducting structured interviews and removing bias by having a panel that decides on the best talent as opposed to one person (Prichard 2020). It can also be enhanced by using talent acquisition software. Towler (2018) that employee engagement can be based on data precisely because it can be measured through the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) that underscores nine items. In addition, there exists scientific research stipulating that companies can foster employee engagement through encouraging regular feedback, providing clear job expectations, providing inspirational leadership and fostering high quality work relationships (Towler, 2018).
AC1.2 Explain the importance of using data, including why it is essential for timely, ethical and accurate analysis and evaluation of personal information.
According to Mohdzaini (2021) there are five major reasons for using data or people analytics these include
- For purposes of internal and external stakeholders, it can be used to measure and enhance the workforce planning by measuring aspects such as performance, wellbeing, inclusion and diversity.
- It facilitates the utilisation of evidence based decision making in reference to organisational performance and improving workforce.
- It can be utilised to validate the impact of HR processes and policies on organisational performance
- It can be used in predicting of financial and social return of investment to change in organisational strategies
- Data is also recognised as a core knowledge element in the profession map in Analytics and creating value.
Morris (2020) stated that HR need timely data for purposes of ensuring that organisations gain a competitive advantage in today’s highly volatile world particularly in acquiring the latest piece of technology as opposed to procuring obsolete technology.
Symonds(20200 explained that data gathered by organisations need to be cognizant of the legal and ethical considerations by defining the purpose of data gathered and how it will be used, clearly communicate this to the employees and comply to the EU’s General Data Protection (GDPR) legislation.
Morris (2020) companies should verify HR data to ascertain accuracy for example in the employment records to avoid hefty fines due to occupational fraud. Data accuracy should also be entrenched in the business and productivity metrics to enhance organisational performance.
AC 1.3 Explain different types of data measurements in relation to the work of people professionals and how these are used to accurately retrieve and collate data to inform decision making.
There are two forms of data that are utilised by people professionals that are qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data describes qualities drawn from individuals and thus is subjective in nature (Mohdzaini, 2021). Some examples of qualitative data in HR include exit interview notes, performance appraisal and employee engagement. Quantitative data on the other hand is objective and can be described in numbers. For example the average age of employees, the total number of employees and the salary age of employee (Mohdzaini, 2021).
Data is utilised by people professionals in decision making in many organisations today. Gupta (2015) detailed the case Black Hill Corporation that addressed a possible turnover catastrophe by calculating the number of employees set to retire per year, types of employees needed as their replacement, and the possible sources of the new hires. Consequently, Google is also noted to use people analytics in its people management practices. For example it uses employee surveys, dashboards and attempts to identify insightful correlations that provide logical actions thus using metrics to substitute opinions (Gupta, 2015). Dale (2019) articulated that absence data can be used by people professionals to provide a business case by demonstrating the total cost of absence annually for example and the interventions in this regard. Additionally, absenteeism data can be used to revise organisational procedures and policies, designing of well-being initiatives and training managers (Dale, 2019).
AC 1.5 Explain how the application of agreed procedures, policies and sources of evidence helps to make choices and informed decisions.
The agreed organisational policies and procedures help in making informed decisions as they provide a guideline to a wide array of employment relationships in the company (Avishikta, 2019). Company policies help in maintaining consistency in decision making as well as observing equity when relating with the employees. As such, organisational policies serve as the yardstick by which organisational accomplishments can be measured (Avishikta, 2019). Moreover, when all the employees are made aware of the company procedures and policies they are then in a position to make informed decisions on their behaviour when at work and comprehend what is expected of them while at the workplace. In reference to supervisors and managers, company policies and procedures help them to make decisions, act with confidence and ensure promptness of actions as long as they are in congruence with outlined procedures (Avishikta, 2019).
Other sources of evidence that have been utilised by people professionals include spreadsheets that are common in managing basics operations such as maintaining employee records and payment details (Team sumHR, 2013). However, this is only ideal for small and medium size businesses as it has poor inbuilt controls and requires a lot of data entry which might be cumbersome for large organisations. With advancements made in technology, people professionals now have access to human resource information systems (HRIS) that are essentially databases for company data. They have been linked to enhanced decision making in reference to organisational communication, recruitment, enhanced HR skills and employee engagement (Silva, Lima, 2017). HRIS enhances decision-making in organisations as provides information that is accurate, relevant and timely and thus saving on cost and increasing efficiency (Silva &Lima, 2017).
AC 2.1 Explain the range of customers and stakeholders with whom people professionals work and the role that influencing plays in creating value for them.
In every organisation, people professionals deal with both internal and external customers. The internal customers are those individuals that have a relationship with the company either through employment or through partnership (Kidd &McLatchie, 2019). Consequently, shareholders and stakeholders are also recognised as internal customers. Internal customers are essential to the success of a business and as such people professionals have an essential role of ensuring that the needs of employees and shareholders are met. Gartenstein (2019) articulated that internal customers should be valued as they shape the outcome of the business. When the employees’ needs are met they develop positive attitude toward work and ensure that they deliver which in turn enhances organisational performance. However, when employees are neglected the workplace becomes a toxic environment and employees are not committed in the delivery of work.
External customers on the other hand are the individuals that pay to use your product and is not directly related to the functioning of an organisation (Kidd &McLatchie, 2019). External consumers can also be identified as clients and view the organisation as a provider of a product or service that they can consume. Examples of external customers include clients, suppliers, society, creditors and governments. Gartenstein (2019) asserts that external customers are essential to the organisations as without them the company would not garner any revenue and thus the need to ensure that they have a positive experience when interacting with company employees. The role of the HR in this regard is to ensure that qualified personnel are assigned the front office role and are consistently trained on the required interaction between the customer and the business. The training should be conducted after collection of data from consumers through informal conversations as well as formal surveys (Gartenstein, 2019). Therefore the HR provides critical knowledge on the language best suited in addressing customers as well as in providing business intelligence on consumer needs which is critical in strategic planning.
AC 2.2 Review the concept of creating value as a people professional and the significance for people, organisations, and wider stakeholders
There are many limitations often capped with the role of people professionals in organisations some perceive them as agents of reducing personnel costs, some reduce them to being solely people managers while others associate them with the duty of making employees happy and satisfied in their duty (Dijk &Brugman, 2017). However the above roles are not the only responsibilities of the people professionals as they also have critical role of creating value to the company, employees as well as the society at large (Dijk & Brugman, 2017). Creation of value in the organisation could mean contributing towards attaining consumer satisfaction, having return on investment or experiencing business growth.
In reference to the employees, creation of value include ensuring that employees get income, hey experience career development and growth as well as develop a sense of purpose or attain actualization in their career (Dijk & Brugman, 2017).
Consequently, in relation to society, value creation is achieved through sustained development, wellbeing and access to a high quality life.
People professionals create value in the above mentioned categories by maximising on human potential, minimising on costs while becoming a strategic partner in performance management, learning and development, development of company policies and procedures, and development of employee appreciation programs.
AC 2.3 Explain how social media can enhance working practices internally and externally, including the associated risks
There are two basic ways of communication at the workplace internal and external communication. Internal communication occurs between and among the company employees as well as between the employees and the management. Eternal communication occurs between company employees and vendors, consumers and others (Webb, 2011). Social media refers to the technologies and information based tools that are used to circulate information and enable communication with internal and external audiences. Some of the applications utilised at the workplace include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, YouTube, WordPress, and Wikipedia among others (SHRM, 2016).
The positive implications of using social media at the workplace include
- Enables open communication, resulting in improved information discovery and delivery
- Allows employees to share ideas, brainstorm and asks questions
- Provides the opportunity to widen business partnerships
- Enhances business reputation and client base
- Expands market campaigns, research and directs people to specific company website
- Promotes diversity and inclusion
Conversely the risks associated with use of social media at the workplace include
- The risk of legal suits should the employees utilise social media to distribute illicit, objectionable or offensive content.
- Security risks as hackers can infiltrate to launch virus attacks, spam and commit fraud.
- Potential outlet for cyberbullying and cyber stalking
- Pauses a threat of people falling prey to online scams that seem genuine thus damaging company reputation
Adapted from (SHRM, 2016).
AC 2.4 Explain how working as a people professional benefits other people in an organisation
People professionals play an essential role in any organisation. Their role influences both internal and external customers. At the internal level, people professionals benefit employees by fostering an open culture which in important in a diverse workplace. People professionals can model this practice by being easily approachable and being open to employee suggestions. This shows that they are valued and creates a sense of belonging besides enhances team spirit within the company (Norman, 2011). This has been espoused by companies such as Google and Apple who have an open door policy and is attributed to their success in innovation.
The people professionals also benefit other people in a company by serving as a source of knowledge, counsel and information. They execute this by leading on issues like succession planning, compensation strategy, diversity and individualised learning and development which seem abstract to business but are critical to performance management (Engel, 2016)
People professionals also benefit others by creating cultures of trust and commitment by role modelling and demonstrating high standards of integrity in their behaviour and in their work. The also do this by developing a detailed and accurate code of conduct or ethics for the company (Cipd, 2021)
AC 2.5 Summarise ways in which you can be customer-focused, and standards-driven in your own context
According to Fox (2013) there are various ways that people professionals can become customer centric and is set to revolutionise the way companies operate. This can proceed by involving customers in the development of employee related practices, using customer feedback in performance reviews, publishing customer feedback in company newsletter and involving customers in recognising the bets employee (Fox, 2013). The ultimate goal in this endeavour should be pegged on improving customer satisfaction.
Standards provide an agreed way of executing a task and are intended to serve as a reliable basis for organisations in provision of a product or a service (Cipd, 2021). As such, standards serve as a basic feature of reputable professions that are founded on ethical practice. To this end, people professionals can be standards driven by developing customer ethos that comply with relevant laws and regulations and this prevent corporate liability. This should be a guide to employee when interacting with consumers. People professionals can also facilitate this by hiring and training professionals with the right skills.
Dijk, R.V. and Brugman, T. (2017). Creating Value With Fact-Based HR. [online] AIHR. Available at: https://www.aihr.com/blog/creating-value-fact-based-hr/.
Engel, C. (2016). The Role of Human Resources in Museums. [online] American Alliance of Museums. Available at: https://www.aam-us.org/2016/01/02/the-role-of-human-resources-in-museums/ [Accessed 4 Feb. 2022].
Gartenstein, D. (2019). What Is an Internal Customer & a External Customer? [online] Chron.com. Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/internal-customer-external-customer-11698.html.
Gupta, B. (2015). Analytics in HR – Data Driven Decision Making in Human Resources. [online] Analytics India Magazine. Available at: https://analyticsindiamag.com/analytics-in-hr-data-driven-decision-making-in-human-resources/ [Accessed 2 Feb. 2022].
Kidd, C. and McLatchie, H. (2019). Internal vs External Customers: How Are They Different? [online] BMC Blogs. Available at: https://www.bmc.com/blogs/internal-vs-external-customers/.
Mohdzaini, H. (2021). People Analytics | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/analytics/factsheet#gref.
Moitra, T. (2017). An Overview of Evidence Based Management in HR: Moving from Suppositions to Data – Sage HR Blog. [online] Sage HR Blog | Easy to implement HR tips! Available at: https://blog.sage.hr/overview-evidence-based-management-hr-moving-suppositions-data/.
Morris, E. (2020). Why Accurate HR Data Is Vital for Companies Operating in a Crisis. [online] Datafloq. Available at: https://datafloq.com/read/why-accurate-hr-data-is-vital-companies-operating-crisis/ [Accessed 2 Feb. 2022].
Norman, L. (2011). The Role of HR in Workplace Culture. [online] Chron.com. Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/role-hr-workplace-culture-10206.html.
Prichard, S. (2020). Evidence-Based Recruiting: Practices to Hire the Best. [online] Available at: https://www.skipprichard.com/evidence-based-recruiting-practices-to-hire-the-best/ [Accessed 2 Feb. 2022].
SHRM (2016). Managing and Leveraging Workplace Use of Social Media. [online] SHRM. Available at: https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/managingsocialmedia.aspx.
Silva, M.S.A. e and Lima, C.G. da S. (2017). The Role of Information Systems in Human Resource Management. [online] www.intechopen.com. IntechOpen. Available at: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/62362.
Symonds, T. (2020). Why data capture from employees needs to be ethical. [online] Personnel Today. Available at: https://www.personneltoday.com/hr/why-data-capture-on-employees-needs-to-be-ethical/.
Team sum HR (2013). The Rise and Fall of Spreadsheets in HR Management. [online] www.sumhr.com. Available at: https://www.sumhr.com/blog/the-rise-and-fall-of-spreadsheets-in-hr-management [Accessed 2 Feb. 2022].
Towler, A. (2018). Employee engagement: Definition, benefits and evidence-based practices on how to improve your employees’ engagement | CQ Net – Management skills for everyone. [online] CQ Net – Management skills for everyone! Available at: https://www.ckju.net/en/dossier/employee-engagement-definition-benefits-and-evidence-based-practices-how-improve-your-employees-engagement.
Webb, C. (2011). Importance of External Business Communication. [online] Chron.com. Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-external-business-communication-19304.html.
Young, J. (2021). Evidence-based Practice for Effective Decision-Making | Factsheets. [online] CIPD. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/analytics/evidence-based-practice-factsheet#gref.
SOLUTION : TASK TWO
Analysis of data to inform practice
|Research and Design. (412 employees, 22 employees did not participate in the survey)||Agree or strongly agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree or strongly disagree|
|It’s difficult to fulfil commitments outside my work because I spend too much time on my job.||48%||13.3%||38.7%|
|The organisation provides flexi-time.||73.8%||23.6%||2.6%|
|I’m allowed to work from home||89%||5.1%||2.6%|
|I’m aware that that the organisation has the opportunity to job share||2.3%||2.1%||95.6%|
|I have scope to use my own initiative in my job role||98.5%||1.5%||0|
|I’m provided with the opportunity to develop my skills||96.7%||2.6%||0.7%|
|My line manager values the work I do.||77.4%||10.3%||12.3%|
|I feel secure in my job role||69.2%||6.7%||24.1%|
|I’m expected to complete my work outside of my contracted hours||99.5%||0.3%||0.3%|
|Absence rates in my department are low||74.1%||25.1%||0.8%|
The employee participation rate in the survey stood at 95% with another 5% of employees choosing not to participate in the survey.
The most evident outcome from the survey is that the organisation allows the employees to complete the tasks after the normal working hours which could be interpreted to mean that the employees are nor under pressure to meet strict deadlines. 99.5% of employees agreed or strongly agreed to the sentiments.
The second revelation is that the organisation allows the employees to incorporate their ideas while executing their tasks. 98.5% of the employees agreed or strongly agreed that the y have scope to use their initiative in the job role.
The third revelation is that the organisation promotes learning and development of the employees as 96.7% agreed or strongly agreed that they are provided with the opportunity to develop their skills.
On the flip side 95.6% of employees disagreed or strongly disagreed that they were aware of the organisation allows job share,
In addition only 38.7% of employees disagreed or strongly disagreed that they were not having difficulty in achieving work-life balance due to their work.
A significant 24.1% indicated that they were not feeling secure in their job roles.
|Administration (65 employees, 4 employees did not participate in the survey||Agree or strongly agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree or strongly disagree|
|It’s difficult to fulfil commitments outside my work because I spend too much time on my job.||95.1%||1.6%||3.3%|
|The organisation provides flexi-time.||6.6%||0||93.4%|
|I’m allowed to work from home||0||29.5%||70.5%|
|I’m aware that that the organisation has the opportunity to job share||13.1%||4.9%||82%|
|I have scope to use my own initiative in my job role||4.9%||80.3%||14.8%|
|I’m provided with the opportunity to develop my skills||34.4%||8.2%||57.4%|
|My line manager values the work I do.||29.5%||29.5%||41%|
|I feel secure in my job role||83.6%||6.6%||9.8%|
|I’m expected to complete my work outside of my contracted hours||100%||0||0|
|Absence rates in my department are low||4.9||0||95.1%|
The most outstanding revelations at the administration level was that 100% of the employees agreed or strongly agreed that they were allowed to complete their work outside work hours. Additionally a whopping 95.1% agreed or strongly agreed that it was difficult for them to achieve work life balance. It was also alarming to note that 95.1% disagreed or strongly disagreed that the absence rates at the department were low. A significant number 93.4% also disagreed that they enjoyed flexible working hours. It was also surprising to note that 80.3% could not ascertain as whether or not they were allowed to include their ideas in the delivery of work.
|Marketing (18 employees all responded to the survey)||Agree or strongly agree||Neither agree nor disagree||Disagree or strongly disagree|
|It’s difficult to fulfil commitments outside my work because I spend so much time on my job||11.1%||0||88.9%|
|The organisation provides flexi time||100%||0||0|
|I’m allowed to work from home||0||0||100%|
|I’m aware that the organisation has the opportunity to job share||0||100%||0|
|I have scope to use my own initiative in my job role||83.3%||16.7%||0|
|I’m provided with the opportunity to develop my skills||77.8%||5.6%||16.6%|
|My line manager values the work I do||66.7%||5.6%||27.7%|
|I feel secure in my job role||55.6%||16.7%||27.7%|
|I’m expected to complete my work outside of my contracted hours||11.1%||0||88.9%|
|Absence rates in my department are low||94.4%||5.6%||0|
The outstanding result in the department is that all employees agreed that they had flexible working hours. It was also revealed that employees were not allowed to work from home probably due to the nature of a marketing job.
Working Days lost in a three month period for each department
Research and design 1876/7.5 ×4= 1000.33
Administration 237/7.5 ×4= 126.4
Marketing 20/7.5 ×4= 10.6667
Average loss if working dates over a 12 month period
Research and design 1876×35=67660
3C002 Power Point Presentation